An Introduction to Geology: 10


Life on Mars? (Image from Wikimedia Commons)

Lecture notes: 2013_IntroGeol_Lect10_future_SML (PDF) 2013_IntroGeol_Lect10_future_SML (PowerPoint)


The global seismic hazard assessment programme (1992-1999).

Predicting earthquakes (USGS web resources)

Earthquakes and seismology (BGS resources)

The L’Aquila Earthquake, Italy (by Dr Richard Walters, University of Leeds)

Did toads predict the L’Aquila earthquake? (from Nature Blogs)


International Earthquake and Volcano Prediction Center.

Cycles in felsic volcanic eruptions might be caused by gas waves (from Nature)

Using thermal imaging to predict volcanic eruptions (from National Geographic)

What will happen when the Yellowstone super-volcano erupts? (from io9)

The Yellowstone super-volcano is also rather larger than previously thought (from BBC News)

Plate tectonics

Measuring plate motion (by Andrew Alden, Geology About)

Using GPS to measure plate movements (University of Colorado)

Calculate the speed your plate is moving at! (from UNAVCO)

The Earth in 50 million years (from Chris Scotese’s Paleomap project)

Climate & Extinctions

The Big Five Mass Extinctions (from the Natural History Museum)

Has the Earth’s Sixth Mass Extinction Already Arrived? (paper by Barnosky et al.)

Why previous predictions of future extinctions were problematical (from Nature)

Movement of marine life follows climate change (article in Science Daily)

More species in a warmer world? (article in Nature)


An Introduction to Geology: 9


Chino copper mine, New Mexico (from Wikimedia Commons)

Lecture slides: 2013_IntroGeol_Lect9_econ_SML (ppt) or 2013_IntroGeol_Lect9_econ2 (pdf)

English Heritage/BGS county atlases of building stones.

GeoScenic, the national archive of geological photographs.

Minerals UK (BGS website)

Coal mining map of the UK (from the Coal Authority)

This Exploited Land: ironstone and the railways in the North Yorks Moors

Cleveland Ironstone: a history (from the Tees Valley RIGS website)

Map of UK oil and gas fields (from DECC)

UK energy analysis (by US Energy Information Administration)

Economic geology in 2013 (review issue of Nature Geoscience, including the paper ‘Metals for a low-carbon society’ by Vidic and colleagues: Vidal_etal2013_renewables_metals)

The Future of the Global Minerals and Metals Sector (BGS article)

Geology of the Coed-y-Brenin (from Geology Wales)

Geology of the Great Orme copper mines (from Wales Underground)

Treasures from the Deep (RSC article on the challenges of deep sea mining)

Rare earth elements: a beginner’s guide (from the BGS)

Rare earths and renewables (an article I wrote for the Newfoundland Independent)

Geothermal energy (BGS website)


An Introduction to Geology: 8

Fossils & Palaeontology

The Walcotts investigating the Burgess Shale (from Wikimedia Commons)

Lecture slides: 2013_IntroGeol_fossils_Lect8 (pdf) or 2013_IntroGeol_fossils_Lect8_SML (ppt)

3D Fossils (new project led by the British Geological Survey)

British Fossils (book by Peter Doyle)

St Hilda’s ammonite, Hildoceras bifrons (NHM website)

The Palaeontological Association (UK-based organization promoting palaeontological science)

Palaeontology Online (articles about the cutting edge of fossil research, written by palaeontologists)

Palaeocast (Palaeontology podcasts and photos on a wide variety of topics)

Fossil evidence of early life: Oldest_fossil_evidence_PaleoSoc (a short guide by the Paleontological Society)

The fossil record of cyanobacteria (UCMP website)

The earliest evidence of life ( article). If you want the full scientific version, it can be found here: 3.48 billion year-old microbially induced sedimentary structures.